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What Are Title IX violations?

Title IX of the Education Amendments of 1972, often referred to simply as Title IX, is a federal law which prohibits discrimination based on sex in federally funded schools at all levels. The essence of the law is that a school may not exclude, separate, deny benefits to, or otherwise treat a person differently on the basis of their sex. Read on for more information on what may constitute violations of Title IX.

Recruitment, Admissions, and Counseling

Title IX prohibits federally funded schools from discriminating on the basis of sex in their recruitment and admissions practices. Some potential Title IX violations in the recruitment and admissions process include:

Financial Assistance

A federally funded school may not discriminate on the basis of sex when making decisions about financial assistance. Potential Title IX violations pertaining to financial assistance include:

Note: A school does not violate Title IX if it offers:


The law prohibits sex discrimination in interscholastic, intercollegiate, or intramural athletics at federally funded schools. A school’s athletic programs could violate Title IX by :

Sex-Based Harassment

Title IX offers protections to students against sex-based harassment in the classroom or while participating in school-sponsored activities. Sex-based harassment can include:

Pregnant and Parenting Students

Under Title IX’s requirements, a school may not discriminate against students who are pregnant or parenting. Some forms of this type of discrimination include:


Title IX also prohibits federally-funded schools from subjecting a person to different rules or discipline based on sex. A school may violate Title IX if it:

Single-Sex Education

Title IX limits when and how federally funded schools can provide single-sex educational programs and activities. Generally, a school may not:


Title IX also protects school employees from discrimination based on their sex. A school might violate this provision of Title IX if it:


Title IX prohibits a school from retaliating against an individual for reporting, complaining about, or participating in an investigation of discrimination under Title IX.

If you feel that you or your child has experienced sex discrimination in a federally funded school either as a student or an employee, our experienced Title IX attorney can help you understand your legal options. Contact Duffy Law online or by calling (203) 946-2000.

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Felice Duffy
Attorney at Duffy Law
Attorney Felice Duffy served as an Assistant United States Attorney for ten years after beginning her legal career at two prestigious firms (one in CT and one in NY) and then clerking for two federal judges. A life-long Title IX advocate, she brought a legal action under the then-new Title IX statute against UCONN while an undergraduate to compel the creation of its women’s varsity soccer program. She went on to become a first-team Division I All-American, was selected to be on the first U.S. National Women’s Team, and spent 10 years as Head Coach of the Yale women's soccer team. Attorney Duffy has Ph.D. in Education/Sports Psychology and has spoken to, and conducted trainings for, over 50 schools and organizations on a wide range of topics involving athletics, the law, and social justice. You can reach Felice at (203) 946-2000.
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