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Title IX & Student Conduct Code Blog

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What are Title IX Cross-Complaints?

Although not required by law to use their school’s grievance procedures before filing a Title IX complaint with the Department of Education’s Office for Civil Rights (OCR), many students, employees, and faculty choose to do so. It is important to note, however, that claimants who choose this route may also face cross-complaints issued by the accused, as most schools give respondents a certain period of time in which to respond to the complaint or file a cross-complaint containing their own allegations. The filing of a cross-complaint can have significant repercussions for the original filer, so if you recently submitted a Title IX grievance with your school or believe that you have grounds to do so, you should consider consulting an experienced Title IX sexual assault lawyer who can help advise you throughout the process.

Filing a Complaint

Title IX protects students, staff, and faculty from discrimination based on sex, sexual harassment, and sexual assault. The specific procedures used for investigating claims, however, varies depending on the educational institution in question. Federal law does require that covered schools hire a coordinator who will be tasked with:

  • Monitoring the school’s compliance with Title IX and other federal law;
  • Investigating and responding to accusations of sexual harassment or other Title IX violations; and
  • Making accommodations for those who have filed complaints.

The exact reporting and investigative procedures that a Title IX coordinator uses, however, is largely left up to the administrators, who are not required by law to take any specific action after receiving a complaint. While it is true that covered schools have a significant amount of discretion when establishing reporting procedures, most institute procedures wherein a complaining party first files a claim with a Title IX coordinator or his or her designee, at which point, the school will conduct an initial assessment of the report. If the initial assessment reveals that a claim is legitimate, the school will conduct a full investigation into all of the allegations.

Filing a Cross-Complaint

Upon initiating a full investigation, the respondent, or person against whom an initial Title IX claim is being filed, may be given the opportunity to prepare a response to the accusations or if applicable, to assert a cross-complaint, which contain separate allegations, usually made against the original complainant.

Although cross-claims are often filed in an attempt to intimidate or further harass a complainant into dropping his or her allegations, a number of court rulings have confirmed that this does not absolve covered schools of the responsibility to ensure appropriate and equal access for students, faculty, and staff to file cross-complaints about the allegations in question. Instead, schools must make a reasonable effort to investigate and adjudicate claims and cross-complaints equally, either in a consolidated manner or on a parallel course depending on the timing of the filings and extent of the allegations.

It is also important to note that complainants usually have the right to respond to counterclaims filed by respondents, although they may be given a deadline for doing so. Finally, most universities and colleges also have policies in place by which those who file cross-complaints in bad faith, meaning that they lack any reasonable basis and are intended to embarrass, harass, or delay the other party, can be found to be acting in retaliation against the reporting party and to have committed a violation of Title IX. Potential penalties for retaliatory actions include suspension or even expulsion.

Conducting a Title IX Investigation into a Cross-Complaint

Once a respondent has filed a cross-complaint and the original claimant has been given the opportunity to respond to the accusations, a Title IX school will conduct an investigation, which usually involves a number of steps, including:

  • Notification of the investigation, which takes the form of a written communication that contains information about the investigation process, including the allegations, the rights of the parties, a warning regarding retaliation, and the terms of the provisions of the school’s policies that were violated;
  • Information and evidence gathering, including documents, electronic materials, such as social media posts, phone logs, emails, and texts, as well as video and audio recordings and interviews with both parties and any witnesses;
  • Information review, where the complainant and the respondent are given the opportunity to review and respond to the evidence gathered by the investigator;
  • Report writing analysis and the determination of facts, which involves the investigator reviewing the information to determine whether the preponderance of the evidence standard was met, meaning that it was more likely than not that the accusations occurred, and then writing a formal investigation report that includes a list of the documents, materials, and evidence gathered and reviewed by the investigator; and
  • Notification of the outcome, which is sent in writing to both the complainant and the respondent and includes information about the outcome of the investigation and is also accompanied by a redacted version of the investigation report.

Finally, the notice of outcome letter that contains a determination related to the complainant’s allegations and any accusations leveled by the respondent in a cross-complaint will also include information regarding the next steps in the Title IX complaint process.

Discuss Your Case with a Title IX Sexual Assault Lawyer Today

If you were the victim of sexual assault, harassment, or discrimination on your campus or at a school sponsored event, you may be unsure of your next steps. Fortunately, students do have rights under federal law, making it especially important for complainants to speak with an experienced Title IX lawyer who can inform them of their options and guide them through the claim filing and investigation process. To learn more about how an experienced Title IX sexual assault lawyer could help you with your own claim, please contact Duffy Law today. We can be reached at our office by calling (203)946-2000 or by sending a message to We also know that you have busy schedules and so make ourselves available on a 24/7 basis via phone or online message.

Christine Brown

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Attorney At Duffy Law

Christine Brown has a comprehensive understanding of Title IX and how it impacts students, faculty, and staff on college campuses. Before joining Duffy in January of 2020, Christine held the dual roles of Director of Legal Services and Title IX Coordinator at Fairfield University, where she was responsible for developing the school’s Title IX policies and due process procedures. She presided over hundreds of university matters including dozens of Title IX hearings and conduct code violation claims ranging from sexual assault to hazing to racial bias.